Monoclonal Antibody: HATs off

In this post, we discuss about how the monoclonal producing hybridoma cells are selected using the HAT media. Antibodies (also known as Immunoglobulins) are large proteins produced by immune cells, primarily plasma cells. They can bind specifically to the antigens and help neutralise them. Structurally they are made up of two light and two heavy [...]



Transduction is a mode of transfer of the genetic material from one bacteria to another by a bacteriophage (virus infecting bacteria). Other modes of transfer of genetic material in bacteria are conjugation and transformation. In the process of tranduction, a phage infects a bacteria and its progeny phage(s) may pick up few of the genes [...]

Bacteriophage Reproduction: Lysogenic Cycle.

The bacteriophages are the viruses that infect the bacteria. There are two different types of bacteriophages based on the mode of reproduction: Temperate bacteriophages and Virulent bacteriophages. The virulent bacteriophage reproduces through lytic cycle (last post). The temperate phages can reproduce through both the lysogenic and the lytic cycle. Both a lytic and lysogenic state [...]

Bacteriophage Reproduction: Lytic Cycle.

Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect the bacteria (host). There are two different types of bacteriophage based on the mode of reproduction: Temperate bacteriophages and Virulent bacteriophages. The temperate phages replicate through lysogenic cycle. They infect and inject their nucleus acids into the bacteria, which gets integrated into the bacterial genome. The integrated phage nuclei [...]

Chromosome Banding..

We have seen that the chromosome is condensed form of DNA. This condensation requires different histone and non-histone proteins. Each chromosome have reproducible ultrastructure.The study of chromosomes is called cytogenetics. The pictures of stained chromosomes of the cell can be photographed and arranged according to shape, structure and sizes to form a karyogram. When subjected [...]


In a previous post, we have seen what is a chromosome, chromatid and chromatin. We know that the chromosome is condensed form of DNA, which is the genetic material of the cell. Chromosomes take up stain and appear as colourful bodies under microscope. The study of chromosomes is known as cytogenetics. The chromosomes can be [...]

High Pressure Liquid Chromatgraphy (HPLC).

The previous post was on the chromatography in general. We discussed about the basics and different types of the chromatography. I recommend you read that post before you start this one. In this post, we discuss about one of the important type of chromatography, HPLC, in details. High 'performance' liquid chromatography or high 'pressure' liquid [...]


Usually a biological sample is made up of more than one component (inorganic samples as well). Some studies require the separation of these components from the mixture. Chromatography is a technique which can separate the different components in the sample. Chromatography makes use of a mobile phase and a stationary phase. The stationary phase remains [...]

The Cell Cycle!!

We all know that the 'Cell is the structural, functional and the biological unit of life'. Any living organism is either unicellular or multicellular. Whatever the case, the cell follows its own life cycle. The life cycle of an eukaryotic cell can be divided into three stages: resting phase, interphase and mitotic phase (M-phase). - [...]